Πρώτη ανάρτηση 2008-11-01
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years. [Behaviorism (1930), p. 82]
Ο Τζον Γουάτσον (John Broadus Watson) ήταν Αμερικανός ψυχολόγος, ιδρυτής της ψυχολογικής σχολής του συμπεριφορισμού, που είναι θεμελιωμένη σε έρευνες πάνω στη συμπεριφορά των ζώων. Πραγματοποίησε, επίσης, το αμφιλεγόμενο πείραμα με το μικρό Αλμπέρτο. Αργότερα έγινε δημοφιλής συγγραφέας γράφοντας για την ανατροφή των παιδιών. Τέλος, έχει αναγνωριστεί η συμβολή του στη διαφημιστική βιομηχανία.
Further emphasizing nurture, Watson said that nothing is instinctual; rather everything is built into a child through the interaction with their environment. Parents therefore hold complete responsibility since they choose what environment to allow their child to develop in. Laura E. Berk, author of Infants and Children: Prenatal Through Middle Childhood, examined the roots of the beliefs Watson came to honor. Berk says that the experiment with Little Albert inspired Watson’s emphasis on environmental factors. Little Albert did not fear the rat and white rabbit until he was conditioned to do so. From this experiment, Watson concluded that parents can shape a child’s behavior and development simply by a scheming control of all stimulus-response associations.
Το πείραμα του “Μικρού Άλμπερτ” (The Little Albert Experiment)
Κείμενα του Γουάτσον:
Watson, John B. (1907). Studying the mind of animals. The World Today, 12, 421-426. [A rare, early, popular statement of functionalism by the «founder» of behaviourism.]
Watson, John B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177. [The classic manifesto of behaviorism.]
- Introduction to Watson (1913) by Christopher D. Green
- Commentary on Watson (1913) by Robert H. Wozniak
Watson, John B. (1916). Behavior and the concept of mental disease. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, 13, 589-597.
Watson, John B. (1920). Is thinking merely the action of language mechanisms? British Journal of Psychology, 11, 87-104.
Watson, John B. & Rayner, Rosalie. (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1-14. [The famous «Little Albert» study.]
Watson, John B. & MacDougall, William. (1929). The battle of behaviorism: An exposition and an exposure. [A debate between the leading behaviorist and the leading instinct theorist of the early 20th century.]
Watson, John B. (1930). Behaviorism (revised edition). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.