Κλασικά Κείμενα της Ψυχολογίας: από το 360 π.Χ. ως το 1900


360 BC – Plato. Timaeus (B. Jowett, Trans.) [Plato’s description of the origin of the cosmos; includes his account of the origin and nature of the psyche.]

350 BCAristotleDe anima (J. A. Smith, Trans.). Originally published in Ross, W. D. (Ed.) (1930). The works of Aristotle (vol. 3). Oxford: Clarendon Press. [«The Philosopher’s» main psychological work. Book I is mainly criticism of what had gone before. Book II focuses on perception. Book III is mainly about the intellect.]

350 BCAristotleOn memory and reminiscence (J. I. Beare, Trans.). Originally published in Ross, W. D. (Ed.) (1930). The works of Aristotle (vol. 3). Oxford: Clarendon Press. [A short work, part of the Parva Naturalia, that follows from De anima.]

1709/1732 Berkeley, George. An essay towards a new theory of vision (4th ed.). [From the purest of the British empiricists.]

1842 – Babbage, Charles. [See Menabrea, L.F. (1842); Lovelace, A.A., (1843)]

1842/1843 – Introduction to Menabrea/Lovelace by Christopher D. Green

1842/1843 – Introduction to Menabrea/Lovelace by Christopher D. Green

1843 Lovelace, A. Ada. Notes by the translator [to L.F. Menabrea’s «Sketch of the analytical engine invented by Charles Babbage, Esq.»]. Scientific Memoirs, 3, 666-731. [Lady Lovelace’s extensive notes to the major account of Babbage’s mechanical computer.]

1843 Menabrea, Luigi F. Sketch of the analytical engine invented by Charles Babbage, Esq. (A.A. Lovelace, Trans.). Scientific Memoirs, 3, 666-731. (Original work published 1842 in Bibliothèque Universelle de Genève, No. 82) [The major account of Babbage’s mechanical computer.]

1850 Poe, Edgar Allan. Mesmeric revelation. [A story about a session of mesmerism on the patient’s deathbed.]

1860 Bowen, Francis. Remarks on the latest form of the development theory. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, n.s., VIII, pp. 98-107, communicated March 27, April 10 and May 1, 1860. Reprinted in G. Daniels (Ed.) (1968). Darwinism comes to America. Waltham, MA: Blaisdell, 66-74.

1860 – Fechner, Gustav Theodor. Elements of psychophysics, Sections VII («Measurement of sensation») and XVI («The fundamental formula and the measurement formula») (Trans. by Herbert S. Langfeld, first appearing in B. Rand (Ed.) (1912), The classical psychologists). [The document in which originated «Fechner’s Law».]

1860 – Gray, Asa. [Review of] The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. American Journal of Science and Arts (March). Reprinted in 1876 in Darwiniana: Essays and Reviews Pertaining to Darwinism. [A review by Harvard’s professor of Natural history, and Darwin’s greatest defender in North America.]

1860 – Introduction to Fechner (1860) by Robert H. Wozniak.

1861a – Broca, Paul Perte de la parole, ramollissement chronique et destruction partielle du lobe antérieur gauche du cerveau Bulletin de la Société Anthropologique, 2, 235-238. [The initial report of Broca’s famous patient, «Tan,» and the localization of speech in the left frontal lobe.]

1861b – Broca, Paul Remarques sur le siége de la faculté du langage articulé, suivies d’une observation d’aphémie (perte de la parole) Bulletin de la Société Anatomique, 6, 330-357. [The complete report on the state of «Tan’s» brain, and Broca’s argument for the fcaulty of spoken language being localized in the left frontal lobe.]

1861a – English translation of Broca’s Loss of speech, chronic softening and partial destruction of the anterior left lobe of the brain by C. D. Green.

1861b – English translation of Broca’s Remarks on the Seat of the Faculty of Articulated Language, Following an Observation of Aphemia (Loss of Speech) by C. D. Green.

1865 – Galton, Francis. Hereditary talent and character. Macmillan’s Magazine, 12, 157-166, 318-327.

1869 – Introduction to Galton’s Hereditary genius (1869) by Robert H. Wozniak.

1870 Wright, Chauncey. Limits of natural selection. North American Review (October). [Critique of Alfred Russel Wallace’s «The limits of natural selection as applied to man» (1869), by the man who was mentor to William James and Charles Sanders Peirce.]

1873 Wright, Chauncey. Evolution of self-consciousness. North American Review (April). [Article requested of Wright by Charles Darwin.] – Madden, E. H.(1963). The metaphysics of self-consciousness. Chapter 7 of Chauncey Wright and the foundations of pragmatism (pp. 128-142). Reprinted by permission of University of Washington Press.

1874 – Darwin, Charles. The descent of man. Part One: Descent or Origin of Man (ch. 1-7). (2nd ed.). Originally published in London by J. Murray. [Darwin’s argument that humans descended from apes.]

1874 McCosh, James. Religious aspects of the doctrine of development. In P. Schaff & S. Prime (Eds.). History, essays, orations, and other documents of the sixth general conference of the Evangelical Alliance, held in New York, October 2-12, 1873, New York, pp. 269-271. Reprinted in G. Daniels (Ed.) (1968). Darwinism comes to America. Waltham, MA: Blaisdell, pp. 96-101.

1874/1902/1904 – Introduction to Wundt by R. H. Wozniak.

1874/1902/1904 – Wundt, Wilhelm Max. Principles of physiological psychology (Edward Bradford Titchener, Trans.) (from the 5th German ed., published 1902; 1st German ed. published 1874.)[Classic text by the founder of the first psychological research laboratory.]

1875 Galton, Francis. History of twins. Human Faculty and its Development (pp. 155-173). [The original psychological twins study.]

1877 Darwin, Charles. A biographical sketch of an infant. Mind, 2, 285-294. [Early evolutionary look at child development.]

1877 Herbart, J. F. Possibility and necessity of applying mathematics in psychology (H. Haanel, Trans.). Journal of Speculative Philosophy, 11, 251-264.

1879 – Hall, G. Stanley. Philosophy in the United States. Mind, 4, 89-105. [Hall’s scathing critique of the state of American philosophy in the 1870s.]

1879 James, William. Are we automata? Mind, 4, 1-22. [James’ reply to T.H. Huxley’s «On the hypothesis that animals are automata, and its history» (1874), available at: http://aleph0.clarku.edu/huxley/CE1/AnAuto.html.]

1880 Galton, Francis. Statistics of mental imagery. Mind, 5, 301-318.

1884 – Dewey, John. The new psychology. Andover Review, 2, 278-289. [Possibly the first use of the phrase «new psychology.»]

1884 James, William. What is an emotion? Mind, 9, 188-205. [The major statement of the James-Lange theory of emotion: «I see a bear, I run, I am afraid.»]

1884 – Peirce, Charles Sanders & Jastrow, Joseph Small differences in sensation. Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, 3, 73-83. [Peirce’s probabilistic critique of Fechner’s concept of the discrimination threshold. Possibly the first published American experimental psychological study.]

1885 Hall, G. Stanley. The new psychology. Andover Review, 3, 120-135, 239-248.

1885 Lange, Carl Georg. The mechanism of the emotions. Trans. by Benjamin Rand, first appeared in Rand, Benjamin (Ed.)(1912). The Classical Psychologists (pp. 672-684). [The «other» source of the James-Lange theory of emotion.]

1886a Cattell, James McKeen. The time taken up by cerebral operations, Parts 1 & 2. Mind, 11, 220-242.

1886b Cattell, James McKeen. The time taken up by cerebral operations, Part 3. Mind, 11, 377-392.

1887 Cattell, James McKeen. The time taken up by cerebral operations, Part 4. Mind, 11, 524-538.

1887 James, William. Consciousness of lost limbs. Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research, 1, 249-258.

1888 Cattell, James McKeen. The psychological laboratory at Leipsic. Mind, 13, 37-51. [English-language report on the activities at Wundt’s lab during the 1880s by one who was there.]

1888/2009 Lange, Ludwig. New experiments on the process of the simple reaction to sensory impressions. (Trans. By David D. Lee of Neue Experimente über den Vorgang der einfachen Reaction auf Sinneseindrücke.) Philosophische Studien, 4, 479-510. (in .pdf). [The article by Wundt’s future assistant that claimed distinct «sensory» and «muscular» types of reaction, thereby setting off a debate (Cattell, Baldwin, Titchener, Angell) that led to the school of Functionalism.]

1890 Cattell, James McKeen. Mental tests and measurements. Mind, 15, 373-381. [An account of one of the first attempts at what we would now call intelligence testing.]

1890 – Introduction to James (1890) by Robert H. Wozniak.

1890 James, William. The principles of psychology. [Perhaps the most important English-language psychology text in history.]

1891 – Jastrow, Joseph. A study in mental statistics. New Review, 5, 559-568.

1891-1893 Sanford, Edmund C. A laboratory course in physiological psychology. American Journal of Psychology, 4, 141-155, 303-322, 474-490; 5, 390-415, 593-616. [One of the «standard» psychology course of the 1890s.]

1892 – Baldwin, James Mark – The psychological laboratory in the University of Toronto. Science, 19 (no. 475), 143-144. [The first published description of the first experimental psychology laboratory in the British Empire.]

1892 Calkins, Mary Whiton. Experimental Psychology at Wellesley College. American Journal of Psychology, 5, 464-271.

1892 Hume, James Gibson. Physiological psychology. Minutes of the Twenty-First Annual Convention of the Ontario Teachers’ Association, pp. 86-106. [Review and idealist critique of the state of scientific psychology in the 1890s by a charter member of the APA.]

1892 James, William. The stream of consciousness. From Psychology (chapter XI). Cleveland & New York, World. [A somewhat shorter account of consciousness than that found in the full Principles.]

1893 Jastrow, Joseph. The section of psychology. in M.P. Hardy (Ed.), Official Catalogue — World’s Columbian Exposition (Part. vii, pp. 50-60).

1893/1947 Cattell, James McKeen. Attention and reaction (R. S. Woodworth, Trans.). In James McKeen Cattell, Man of science (Vol. 1: Psychological Research, pp. 252-255, R. S. Woodworth, Trans.). Lancaster, PA: The Science Press, 1947. (Originally published as «Aufmerksamkeit und Reaction» in Philosophische Studien, 8. 403-406.[Calls into question L. Lange’s sensorial/muscular reaction findings, setting up the foundations of functionalism — see 1895-96 Titchener and Baldwin papers.]

1893a Münsterberg, Hugo. The new psychology and Harvard’s equipment for teaching it. Harvard Graduate Magazine, 1 (2), 201-209. [A defense of the new psychology by the largest laboratory’s new director.]

1893b Münsterberg, Hugo. Psychological laboratory of Harvard University. [A catalogue of equipment and readings, prepared for the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.]

1894 De Varigny, M. Henry. Le laboratoire de psychologie expérimentale de l’Université de Madison. Revue Scientifique, vol. 1, tome 1, 624-629. [The single most detailed contemporary report of Jastrow’s psychology exhibit at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.]

1894 – Dewey, John. The ego as cause. Philosophical Review, 3, 337-341.

1894 – English translation of  De Varigny’s The experimental psychology laboratory at the University of Madison by C.D. Green.

1894 – Hill, A. B. & Watanabe, R. «Sensorial» and «muscular» reactions. American Journal of Psychology, 6, 242-246. [Supervised by E. B. Titchener, in support of L. Lange’s findings.]

1894 – Krohn, William O. Facilities in experimental psychology in the colleges of the United States. In Report of the Commissioner of Education for the year 1890-’91 (Vol. 2, pp. 1139-1151).

1894  American Psychological Association. – Proceedings of the Preliminary Meeting (1892), the First Annual Meeting (1892), and the Second Annual Meeting (1893).

1895 – Baldwin, James MarkTypes of reaction. Psychological Review, 2, 259-273. [Baldwin’s reply to Titichener, 1895a.]

1895 Hume, James Gibson. Psychology in the University of Toronto. Psychological Review, 2, 172. [Abstract of paper presented at the 1894 meeting of the American Psychological Association.]

1895 – Nevers, Cordelia C. & Calkins, Mary W. Dr. Jastrow on community of ideas of men and women. Psychological Review, 2, 363-367. [Reply to Jastrow (1891).]

1895/1813 Ebbinghaus, Hermann. (1913). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology (Henry A. Ruger & Clara E. Bussenius, Trans.). Originally published in New York by Teachers College, Columbia University. (Original German work Über das Gedächtnis published 1885). [The most important work on memory in the 19th century; originated the use of nonsense syllables.]

1895/1813 – Introduction to Ebbinghaus (1885/1913) by Robert H. Wozniak.

1895a Titchener, Edward B. Simple reactions. Mind, 4, 74-81. [The article that began the structuralist-functionalist debate.]

1895b Titchener, Edward B. The type-theory of simple reaction. Mind, 4, 506-514. [Reply to Baldwin’s (1895) critique of Titchener (1895a).]

1896 Baldwin, James Mark. The ‘type-theory’ of reaction. Mind, 5, 81-90. [Baldwin’s reply to Titchener, 1895b]

1896 – Dewey, John. The reflex arc concept in psychology. Psychological Review, 3, 357-370. [The article that defined the modern concept of the reflex.]

1896 Jastrow, Joseph. Community of ideas of men and women. Psychological Review, 3, 68-71. [Reply to Nevers (1895).]

1896 – Morgan, C. Lloyd On modification and variation. Science, NS 4, No. 99, 733-740. [Morgan’s version of the «Baldwin effect,» published the same year as Baldwin’s paper.]

1896 Titchener, Edward B. The ‘type-theory’ of simple reaction. Mind, 5, 236-241. [Titchener’s reply to Baldwin (1896)]

1896/1897 – Introduction to Wundt by R. H. Wozniak.

1896/1897 – Wundt, Wilhelm Max. Outlines of psychology (Charles Hubbard Judd, Trans.). [Classic text by the founder of the first psychological research laboratory.]

1896a – Calkins, Mary Whiton. Association: An essay analytic and experimental. Psychological Review Monographs Supplement, 1 (2). [The origin of the paired associates learning procedure by the first woman President of the APA.]

1896b – Calkins, Mary Whiton. Community of ideas of men and women. Psychological Review, 3, 426-430. [Reply to Jastrow (1896).]

1897 – Hume, James Gibson. The practical value of psychology to the teacher. Toronto: George N. Morang. [Originally delivered before the Ontario Teachers’ Association, Toronto, 1897.]

1898 – Baldwin, James Mark, Cattell, James McKeen, & Jastrow, Joseph. Physical and mental tests. Psychological Review, 5, 172-179. [An account of an early attempt at what we would now call intelligence testing.]

1898 – Caldwell, W. Professor Titchener’s view of the self. Psychological Review, 5, 401-408. [The comment the ostensibly provoked Titchener to distinguish between structuralism and functionalism.]

1898 – Cattell, James McKeen. [See also Baldwin, Cattell, & Jastrow (1898).]

1898 – Cattell, James McKeen. The psychological laboratory. Psychological Review, 5, 655-658. [A reply to Titchener, 1898.]

1898 – Hume, James Gibson. Contributions of psychology to morality and religion. Psychological Review, 5, 162-163. [Abstract of paper presented at the 1897 meeting of the American Psychological Association.]

1898 – Jastrow, Joseph. [See Baldwin, Cattell, & Jastrow (1898).]

1898 – Triplett, Norman. The dynamogenic factors in pacemaking and competition. American Journal of Psychology, 9, 507-533. [Often called the first social psychology experiment; social facilitation among bicycle riders.]

1898a – Titchener, Edward B. The postulates of a structural psychology. Philosophical Review, 7, 449-465. [Major statement of Titchener’s structuralist school.]

1898b – Titchener, Edward B. A psychological laboratory. Mind, 7, 311-331. [Description of the Cornell lab, its equipment, and its cost.]

1899 – Caldwell, W. The postulates of a structural psychology. Psychological Review, 6, 187-191. [Reply to Titchener 1898.]

1899 – Münsterberg, Hugo. Psychology and history. Psychological Review, 6, 1-31. [Münsterberg’s APA Presidential address about the epistemological relation between the natural and the normative sciences. First English discussion of idiographic and nomothetic methods, later popularized by Gordon Allport.]

1899 – Titchener, Edward B. Structural and functional psychology. Philosophical Review, 8, 290-299. [Reply to Caldwell, 1899.]

1900 – Albert H.  Abbott: Experimental psychology and the laboratory in Toronto. University of Toronto Monthly, 1, 85-98, 106-112. [A defense of the viability of experimental psychology against its 19th-century opponents, followed by description of the expanded Toronto laboratory, first established by J.M. Baldwin in 1891.]

1900 – Christopher D. Green – Introduction to Abbott.

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